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地震来了,如何第一时间科学避震?

【摘要】:
地震时,在寻找躲避地方时,就应用软垫或枕头等物,保护头部。如果闻到天然气、煤气味,不要点燃明火,用毛巾之类的东西沾水,捂住鼻子。  

九寨沟地震

Jiuzhaigou earthquake

8月8日21时19分,四川省阿坝州九寨沟县发生7.0级地震。地震发生后,中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平高度重视,立即作出重要指示,要求抓紧了解核实九寨沟7.0级地震灾情,迅速组织力量救灾,全力以赴抢救伤员,疏散安置好游客和受灾群众,最大限度减少人员伤亡。

A 7.0-magnitude earthquake struck Jiuzhaigou County, Aba Prefecture, Sichuan Province at 21:19 am on August 8. After the earthquake occurred, president Xi Jinping paid high attention and made important instructions immediately. He demanded that the earthquake disaster of Jiuzshaigou shall be verified immediately and the related parties and organizations shall involved in the rescue of the wounded residents and visitors to minimize the casualties as less as possible.

 

经初步核查,“8·8”九寨沟地震已致19人死亡,343人受伤,其中重伤13人,较重21人,轻伤309人,已转院19人。

After the preliminary verification, 19 people were died and 343 injured in the “8.8” Jiuzhaigou earthquake, of which 13 were seriously injured, 21 less seriously injured, 309 lightly injured and 19 were transferred to other hospitals.

 

破坏性地震发生的瞬间,也就是从地震开始到房屋倒塌这十几秒的时间,这是关键的救生时间,在这生与死的紧要关头,一定沉着冷静,选择适当的救生方法。

 

The moment when a destructive earthquake occurs, there are only around ten more seconds from the beginning of the earthquake to the collapse of houses. And this is the critical time for rescue. In this critical moment determining one’s survival or death to a certain extent, try to be calm and choose the appropriate rescue methods.

 

 

在室内的避震方法

1、地震时,在寻找躲避地方时,就应用软垫或枕头等物,保护头部。如果闻到天然气、煤气味,不要点燃明火,用毛巾之类的东西沾水,捂住鼻子。  

2、应选择结实、能掩护身体的物体的旁边,容易形成三角空间的地方,如:炕沿、坚固的家具旁边、内墙墙跟、墙角、有立柱的地方;开间小,有支撑的地方,如:洗手间、储藏室、厨房等空间窄小的地方。最理想的地方是洗手间、厨房,到时侯可能有水和食物维持生命。  

3、身体应采取的安全姿势是:蹲下或坐下,尽量卷曲身体,降低身体重心。

4、遇到强烈地震,不能开门开窗、跳楼。由于强烈地震,门窗震歪或严重变形,很难开门窗,如果一味地要开窗开门,将浪费宝贵的自救时间。如果跳楼,楼房可能很高,可能出现情况的是摔死、摔伤,或被楼房倒塌下的东西砸伤或砸死。 

 

Methods to avoid injure of earthquake indoor

When earthquake occurs, you should use the soft cushions or pillows to protect your head. If you find gas leakage, do not make a fire and use a wet tower to cover your nose.

2. Choose a place where there are solid objects which can cover your body, and it is easy to form the triangular space, such as the low wall, the place next to the solid furniture, the corner, and the place with pillar. A small room, such as a bathroom, storage room, kitchen, etc. are also good place to hide yourself. The ideal places are bathroom and kitchen where there may be water and food.  

3. The posture should be: squat down or sit down, curl your body as much as possible and reduce the center of body weight.

4. When encountering a strong earthquake, do not open the window or jump off the building. It is difficult to open doors and windows because they may be distorted or badly deformed due to the strong earthquake. If you try to open windows and doors, you will waste precious time of self-rescue. If you jump, the building may be very high and jumping will cause your injure or death. Moreover, you may be badly injured or even died because of the collapsion of the building.

 

在室外的避震方法

1、就地选择开阔地蹲下或趴下,以免摔倒。

2、不要乱跑,避开人多的地方,不要返回房屋内。  

3、应注意避开楼房、过街天桥、立交桥、高大烟筒、水塔等高大建筑物;应避开变压器、电线杆、路灯、广告牌、吊车、高大树木等危险物或悬挂物;还要避开狭窄街道,危旧房屋、危墙、女儿墙、砖瓦木料等堆放物;如果身在山上,应避开山脚、陡崖,以防山崩、滚石、滑坡、泥石流。 

 

Methods to avoid injure of earthquake outdoor

1.Sit or lie down on the open ground by your side and avoid falling down.

2. Don't run around, avoid crowded places and don't return to the house. 

3. Avoid buildings, overpasses, tall chimneys, water towers and other tall buildings. Avoid dangerous or hanging objects such as transformers, poles, street lamps, billboards, cranes, tall trees, etc. Avoid narrow streets, dangerous and old houses, dangerous walls, parapet walls, brick wood and piles, etc. If you are on the mountain, you should avoid the foot of the mountain and steep cliffs, in case of landslide and debris flow.

 

学校避震方法

1、地震时,在学校,师生切忌慌乱冲出教室,在走廊里惊慌拥挤,避免踩伤、摔伤。  

2、学生在上课时,教师应沉着指挥学生迅速抱头(或用书包盖头)、闭眼、躲在各自的课桌下。

3、在操场和室外,可原地蹲下,抱着头部。

4、注意避开高大建筑物,不要回到教室中。  

 

Methods to avoid injure of earthquake at school

1. When the earthquake occurs, teachers and students should not rush out of the classroom in panic and crowd the corridor in case of trampling and tumbling.  

2. When students are In class, teachers should calmly instruct them to quickly cover their heads (or cover their heads with schoolbags), close their eyes and hide under their desks.

3. On the playground and outside, teachers and students should stay in place and hold your head.

4. Avoid tall buildings and do not return to the classroom.

 

 

汽车内避震方法

地震时,行驶的汽车里,司机不要紧急刹车,应当降低速度,靠边停放,如果在立交桥、高架桥、高速路上,应迅速离开。乘客应抓牢扶手,以免摔倒或摔伤;或降低重心,躲在座位附近,地震过后再下车。  

 

Methods to avoid injure of earthquake in cars

When an earthquake occurs, driver of the car should slow down and stop at the side, but do not brake suddenly. If you are on an overpass, viaduct or highway, you should leave immediately. Passengers should hold on to the handrails to avoid falls or injuries. You can lower your center of gravity, stay close to your seat and get off the vehicle after the earthquake.

 

其它灭害的自救方法

地震时,可能遇到燃气泻漏、火灾、泥石流等灾害,应当采取适当方法自救。

1、遇到燃气泻漏时,应用湿毛巾捂住鼻子、口,千万不要用明火,或设法转移。  

2、遇到火灾时,应趴在地上,用纺织物捂住鼻子、口,地震停止后,应匍匐向安全地方转移,要逆风而进。  

3、当遇到化工厂着火,毒气泻漏,不要顺风方向跑,要尽量绕到上风方向去,并设法用纺织物捂住鼻子和口。

 

Other methods of self-rescue

When an earthquake occurs, it is possible to encounter disasters such as gas leakage, fire and debris flow, an appropriate method shall be adopted for self-rescue.

1. When encountering gas leakage, cover your nose and mouth with a wet towel. Do not make a fire or try to move. 

2. When encountering fire, lie on the ground and cover your nose and mouth with woven fabric. After the earthquake, try to move to a safe place by crawling against the wind.. 

3. When there is a fire at the chemical plant and toxic gas leakage, do not run at downwind direction, instead you should escape as far as possible from the wind direction, and cover your nose and mouth with woven fabric.